Infertility and the Male
Below is the article, and to watch the previous parts of this Video, here're the links:
Part 1: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zBokwjO2TOw
Part 2: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qASi9JqdIlg
Whenever we speak of infertility, our society puts the blame on the woman and treats her as a curse to the family. Out of 100 infertile couples, approximately 30 report with problems in the female partner, 30 with problems in the male partner and 40 report with problems in both the partners. The male counterpart contributes to 50% of the causes of infertility. In clinical practice we see patients coming with multiple tests conducted on the female partner whereas a simple test like the semen analysis of the male is totally ignored by the couple. Denial on part of the male to accept infertility problems makes it very difficult to treat such couples. Before we go into depths of male infertility let’s answer a few simple questions:
How does conception take place?
Although conceiving a child may seem to be a simple& natural process, it is quite complicated and depends on the proper functioning of many factors:
• Production of healthy sperms in the man
• Production of healthy eggs in the woman
• Unblocked fallopian tubes that allow the sperm to reach the egg
• The sperm’s ability to fertilize the egg
• The ability of the fertilized egg to implant in the uterus (womb) of the woman
• Adequate embryo quality
What are the risk factors for men regarding infertility?
• History of genital infections or prostatitis
• Testicular trauma or torsion
• History of precocious puberty (puberty occurring at a younger age) or delayed puberty (puberty occurring at an older age)
• Occupational hazards such as exposure to toxic substances like lead, cadmium, mercury, radioactive & X-rays
• Smoking of cigarettes or Marijuana. Intake of drugs like opium, tobacco, zarda & khaini
• Heavy alcohol consumption
• Exposure of genitals to high temperatures
• Undescended testicles and hernia repair
• Mumps after puberty
What causes male factor infertility?
Sperm disorders are the main cause of infertility in males. Production and maturation of sperms are affected due to different factors. Sperms may be immatuchutiya ent. The conditions causing these problems are listed below:-
• Anatomical problems- obstruction of the genital tract, presence of varicose veins in the scrotum, immotile cilia syndrome (non-motile sperms), other factors like premature ejaculation or impotence.
• Infections such as the mumps virus.
• Endocrine or hormonal disorders
• Immunological disorders where men produce antibodies to their own sperms
• Environmental and lifestyle factors
• Genetic diseases like cystic fibrosis (absence of vas deferns), sex reversal syndrome (a male who has the sex chromosome of a female instead of a male viz. XX instead of XY), androgen receptor gene mutations (the man is genetically male but has a defect in the receptor for the male hormone testosterone), Klinefelter’s syndrome (Men with an extra X chromosome-47, XXY), chromosomal derangements (deletion of the Y chromosome).
It is important to undepass this problem to their sons.
How is male infertility diagnosed?
In addition to a c male infertility includes the following:
• Multiple semen analysis- at least two semen samples are collected on separate days to examine the volume, consistency, pH, sperm count, motility and morphology (shape).
• Hormonal tests- in case of very low count or absent sperms.
• Ultrasound & surgical opinion in case of varicose veins.
What is the treatment for male factor infertility?
Treatment for male factor infertility is based on the following:
• Age, overall health, medical history.
• Extent of the disease.
• Tolerance for specific medications, procedures or therapies.
• Patient’s opinion and preference.
Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) as treatment options for male factor infertility:
• Artificial insemination- it involvesrtner’s uterus by passing the cervix to have direct access to the fallopian tubes.
• Donor insemination- it is the same as artificial insemination but involves the placement of sperms from a donor with consent of both partners.
• IVF and other techniques: In vitro fertilization offers the opportunityto prepare high quality sperms at optimum concentration and then allow them to fertilize the oocytes outside the body. Once fertilized, the embryo is transferred into the uterine cavity of the female.
• Microsurgical fertilization (ICSI- Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection): this treatment is to facilitate sperm penetration by injection of a single sperm into the cytoplasm d under the microscope after 48 hours and the fertilized embryo is transferred into the uterine cavity.
Remind your partner that most male infertility problems can be successfully treated. And also, reassure him that you love him more than his sperm. Communicate with your partner, talk about his fear, anger, anxiety and frustrations.